12/19/2017

SGX – Conflict of interests

Many in the industry have cried foul that SGX is compromising itself by holding the dual roles of regulator and of running the exchange as a profit making organization. The conflict of interests is so glaring that only when one is behaving like gods and infallibles that one would think otherwise. In this exceptional island, SGX is not the only place where conflict of interests were ignored as irrelevant and inapplicable. And this sad state of affair is going to continue unquestioned and unchallenged for as long as your life time if things did not change, if the political status quo remains as it is.
 

The underlying assumption is that this exceptional island is so blessed with very exceptional human beans that have impeccable integrity, honesty and are so honourable that you can believe they would not compromise themselves even if they assumed the roles of judge, jury and executioner. They cannot be compromised or are incorruptible! So to be the regulator to police any wrong doings in the exchange and also to run the exchange for profit with evident conflict of interests is a non issue. The duality of roles, conflicting roles, would not be compromised under the charge of infallible human gods, some admitted with a little humility that they were only mere immortals, not yet gods.
This morning I glanced at the SGX screen and found out that about 30 stocks have been suspended and about 20 of them were red chips. I have lost count on the number of red chips that had been delisted, with the owners run road.
 

Just a food for thought, what if the SGX did not take on the dual roles of regulator and operator of a profit making organization that it is supposed to regulate and police? This is hypothetical of course. Would SGX be allowed to bring in the numerous red chips and foreign companies and list them in the exchange given the hindsight that many had run road or about to run road and nothing can be done about it? And given this bad experience, would SGX be wiser and be more prudent and take lesser risk in allowing foreign companies, especially the kuching kurap companies, to list here when they have barely any control over them, no legal jurisdiction over them, barely knowing how they operate and the rule of law in their country of origin?
 

On hindsight, how many hundreds of millions or billions have been lost by the innocent investors as a result of the listing of these foreign shares that had run road or about to run road? How much money could have been saved or not lost if there was a stronger and more diligent hand policing the SGX and someone, hypothetically, took a position that such high risk adventures were not worth taking and forbid SGX from doing it and from continuing to flirt and solicit potential foreign companies to list in the exchange as every listing is money, income, revenue and profit to the SGX?
 

Are the risks acceptable risks, reasonable risks, bearable risks that losing millions or billions by the investors are justifiable for the pittance the exchange was and is going to get from such listings.
 

There is also the issue of integrity and soundness of the exchange in the long run as a solid institution where investors can park their money and invest safely. Would there be a difference if SGX was not allowed to take on the dual roles of regulator and operator of a profit making organization at the same time? Is it reasonable to question and to challenge the dual roles with conflict of interests by the SGX? Or should this be the normal, the right thing to do in this paradise ruled by gods or demi gods with impeccable and unquestionable integrity, that conflict of interests would never be an issue? Gods and demi gods are infallible, unlike ordinary human beans.
 

Would SGX be just a stats board, providing a service with unquestionable integrity and an uncompromising system that would not be subject to doubts, a sound financial system? Or would it be better to delink the dual roles to have another body policing the exchange while it continues to be a profit making organization that would make decisions for revenue and profits like before?

40 comments:

Anonymous said...

Sinpore classic: HuleeJinx buy high sell low, LooneyLi tax collect n give her more. Kaki lang lah. Same same no konflict.

Anonymous said...

Hi Redbean,
Very well written, this is the sad state we are in.

Those in power think that they are God and will be impartial but we all know that to err is only human and greed is another weakness as human.

The reason why all companies are required to be audited by non related 3rd party is to provide certain mean of check and balance so the one can whistleblow for any suspicious wrong doing. It's not about doubting the integrity of the directors but more to show accountability and transparency without being asked. One needs not be worry if he has nothing to hide.

Look at how our GIC and TMK are being audited? Would anyone dare to voice out even if there is really something fishy by not compromising their audit position or business? How to stop people from speculating endlessly? I can't think of any except to be upfront with everything......

Anonymous said...

Money required by wife, only need to tell husband in bed, "Tomorrow, I need $100 billion more to go on world shopping spree so that I can become 3rd Most Influential Woman in the World. That will be good for your image too!"

Husband quickly phone Rewarded-Millionaire Minion Ah Kow, "Ah Kow, Boss here. Tomorrow, I want you to transfer $100 billion from FPC to Kesamet. Do you understand?"

Minion Ah Kow, "Boss, why? What for?"

Boss, "Don't aks any question. Just do as I told you to. And don't tell any other people. Is that clear?"

Minion Ah Kow, "Yes, SIR! No problem."

Where got CONflict of Interest?

Anonymous said...

Trump's Judicial Nominee Who Bungled Basic Legal Questions, Withdraws After Humiliating Hearing
--------------------

President Trump's nominee to fill a vacant D.C. District Court Judge seat has withdrawn his name from consideration after an embarrassing video went viral of him bungling basic legal questions at his confirmation hearing on December 13.

http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-12-18/trump-judicial-nominee-who-bungled-basic-legal-questions-withdraws-after-humiliating

- only in America
- such embarrassing things do not happen in Singapore

All of us should be thankful for our PAP government.

Virgo49 said...

GIC and TMK, no audit. No noise and sound.

AMK, under PM GRC, audited and GM found to have discrepancies.

Also, no noise, no sound, no sight.

So, SINKIE land all the while is being ruled by the Judge, Prosecutors, Jury, Wardens all in One.

Who dares to question them??

It's the daft Sinkies yourselves who dug your own graves believing and voting them.

Now, on Over Seas Leave, look see look see which Paradise to sojourn for retirement.

Alamak Snr can be Acting PM. DONT play, play.Or he volunteered for it???

Volunteer lah, Any wrong decisions or mistakes also no accountability.

I volunteered you know. What's you expect? ? You should be grateful.

Anonymous said...


Hahaha,,,,

$g is like that liao.

What can you do?

Tooooooooooooo late to change.

Anyway 70% are very happy!

This is $g for you!

Cheers,,,,,,,,

Unknown said...

Conflict of Interest

Legal Definition

A term used to describe the situation in which a public official or fiduciary who, contrary to the obligation and absolute duty to act for the benefit of the public or a designated individual, exploits the relationship for personal benefit, typically pecuniary.

In certain relationships, individuals or the general public place their trust and confidence in someone to act in their best interests. When an individual has the responsibility to represent another person—whether as administrator, attorney, executor, government official, or trustee—a clash between professional obligations and personal interests arises if the individual tries to perform that duty while at the same time trying to achieve personal gain.

The appearance of a conflict of interest is present if there is a potential for the personal interests of an individual to clash with fiduciary duties, such as when a client has his or her attorney commence an action against a company in which the attorney is the majority stockholder.

Incompatibility of professional duties and personal interests has led Congress and many state legislatures to enact statutes defining conduct that constitutes a conflict of interest and specifying the sanctions for violations. A member of a profession who has been involved in a conflict of interest might be subject to disciplinary proceedings before the body that granted permission to practice that profession.

In General

More generally, conflicts of interest can be defined as any situation in which an individual or corporation (either private or governmental) is in a position to exploit a professional or official capacity in some way for their personal or corporate benefit.

Depending upon the law or rules related to a particular organization, the existence of a conflict of interest may not, in and of itself, be evidence of wrongdoing. In fact, for many professionals, it is virtually impossible to avoid having conflicts of interest from time to time. A conflict of interest can, however, become a legal matter, for example, when an individual tries (and/or succeeds in) influencing the outcome of a decision, for personal benefit. A director or executive of a corporation will be subject to legal liability if a conflict of interest breaches his/her duty of loyalty.

There often is confusion over these two situations. Someone accused of a conflict of interest may deny that a conflict exists because he/she did not act improperly. In fact, a conflict of interest can exist even if there are no improper acts as a result of it. (One way to understand this is to use the term "conflict of roles". A person with two roles—an individual who owns stock and is also a government official, for example—may experience situations where those two roles conflict.

The conflict can be mitigated—see below—but it still exists. In and of itself, having two roles is not illegal, but the differing roles will certainly provide an incentive for improper acts in some circumstances.)

As an example, in the sphere of business and control, according to the Institute of Internal Auditors:

conflict of interest is a situation in which an internal auditor, who is in a position of trust, has a competing professional or personal interest. Such competing interests can make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially. A conflict of interest exists even if no unethical or improper act results. A conflict of interest can create an appearance of impropriety that can undermine confidence in the internal auditor, the internal audit activity, and the profession. A conflict of interest could impair an individual's ability to perform his or her duties and responsibilities objectively.

Conclusion

Irrespective of whatever measures being taken, human beings are imperfect and are subject to personal bias, greed, fear, favour and ill-will. Therefore, any conflict of interest must be avoided and prevented at its onset in order not to appear to be a deliberate move to condone the suspected conflict of interest.

Anonymous said...

All emperors and dictators operate on the basis of conflict of interest because they have too many personal interests that conflict with public interests. Their paramount interest is to ensure they are in power all the time. This interest over-rides all other personal and public interests. How then can an emperor or dictator avoid conflict of interest? IMPOSSIBLE!

That is why when the emperor or dictator falls, the public can have countless reasons, both legal and moral, to bring him or her to task. There can be no escape!

This is the reason why emperors and dictators always, without fail, ensure that they continue to be in power forever. That is how dynasties came about. The modern day term for "Dynasty" is "Natural Aristocracy".

Anonymous said...

Conclusion

Irrespective of whatever measures being taken, human beings are imperfect and are subject to personal bias, greed, fear, favour and ill-will. Therefore, any conflict of interest must be avoided and prevented at its onset in order not to appear to be a deliberate move to condone the suspected conflict of interest.
December 19, 2017 9:55 am

This is why there is no issue of conflict of interest in Red Dot. Red dot is not ruled by human beings but by immortals. Immortals got no such problems.

Anonymous said...

Conflict of interest? U better stay away to listen to the words. It will not work when the political influence is overwhelming. A simple comment on one post saying audit could not be done properly in certain org.

Be much clearer: who pay the auditors?

The china listed companies are no go for share players. They died now. China stops public from "investing outward" to prevent money being send out and pass back. U know this game if dealing with china. If funds outflows to sinkieland needs the approval of china authority, the firms will be in high and dry, even they are doing proper business.

Sinkies buying shares need to look at the political situation. One big grand plan is India Pacific navigation freedom. Sinkieland is part of it. Just last week, India army chief warned that India would push back PLA at Himalaya disputed land. He said "we are ready". After 17 years, Modi commissioned India s first submarine. More big show akandatang. Last week saw changi authorized India big ships to dock. But donno if India big ships will ever pass sinkieland. These good gestures to china will warn chinese funds not to engage the super power usa.

In 2007 PSA bidded high price according to HK news to help Pakis develop/manage Gwardar port. The bid price deter china company s chance. It was a 40yr contract. After 4 years in 2012, PSA gave up Gwardar for losing big money. This is sinkieland doing business. On political front, the elites worked against business logic. No deep pocket, wanted to block china s chance. After Pakis asked china to take Gwardar, 4 years later, the port started to do business in Nov 2016.

Sinkieland s port s reputation is excelled. Stock exchange too acquired excellent records. Failed merger bid with the most friendly Oz, stoppage days in operations, low IPO business. These are indicators of not too excellent political environment for businesses. Aramco is having IPO. Saudi king visited HK exchange and HK new chief madam paid personal visit to the King. Obviously was for IPO. Will HK get it? U better bet because HK indices started 22k and peaked at 30k, steady at 29k. Take Aramco for sinkieland, why not? No real action.

It reflects a sense of hopelessness. Hire some Indians experts will help Sgx to prosper against the china chinese KongKawShor 388. In chennai and philippines, there are masters and doctorates degree holders willing to take less than 2 or 3k sin dollars to do dockeytons of jobs. Sinkieland should replace all those NS men and sinkiewomen not performing on jobs. China chinese companies will rush to open IPO accounts. Trouble is unsolved: sinkies are indebted, and earning salary 20 years ago level, how to buy stocks to keep? Cpf also kosong for many young.
Hope is on bitcoin exchange in sinkieland. Better worn u: many predict it will crash down. Trump said NK was the party hacked firms files and put in "wannacry" virus. That hacking took billions of bitcons estimated. When bitcoin crash, will it affect sgx? Hope not.

Anonymous said...

Bought $5 bitcoin 4 years ago, now is worth $50,000! This is too good to be true. But it is true. Why?

That means someone with a cunning brain like George Soros or a organised crime group is behind the scene manipulating. This is similar to the "pyramid scams". One day it will crash. Not a matter of "if" but a matter of "when".

So, when will it crash? Some wolves and crocodiles are speculating that the bitcoin price will rise to $100,000. The greedy will agree with them. The cautious will wait and see. Both are losers in the end.
The wolves and crocodiles will eat them for breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper.

Daft Sinkies will be among them for sure because stupidity has no cure.


Anonymous said...

"Red dot is not ruled by human beings but by immortals. Immortals got no such problem."

Sinkieland is now looking for Problems After Problems when the 70% dafts Sickos leave it to the Prostitutes And Pimps & Paper Scholars turn Paper Generals to solve Sickies problems, its Hell out there.

Anonymous said...

Another term for "Natural Aristocracy" is "Nepotic Authoritarianism", or in short, "Inbreeding".

Anonymous said...

"Red dot is not ruled by human beings but by immortals. Immortals got no such problem."

One immortal already died at age 91. The second immortal will also die soon. The third immortal may die before the second immortal?

Cancer cancels all immortals and makes them immorals.

Anonymous said...

Rb, even as small investors with few hundred k to invest, we have lost over 100 k with many of them run road liao

Anonymous said...

KBKB for fuck?!?!?!

You all fucking voted for it since 1959!!!

This is LKY modus operandi & PAP style ... lao peh knows best ... you motherfuckers shut the fuck up & go die when I say die!!

Since 1959 all aspects of govt, policy making, ministries, stat boards, judiciary, GLCs, Temasek, GIC etc etc have all been run & operating as judge, jury & executioner.

But sinkies all love it what!!! That's why keep voting for PAPies!!!

So complain for fuck?!?!?!?!

Anonymous said...

If nobody make noise, some motherfuckers will claim that everything is alright because no one complains and there were no protests.

If somebody make some noise, some motherfuckers will also ask: "Complain for fucks?"

Therefore, in the mind of motherfuckers, there is no way any daft Sinkies can find redress.

Anonymous said...

Bill Gate said that bitcoin is better than USD. Why did he said such thing? Could he be the one behind this crazy rise of bitcoin value.

"Bitcoin completely dominates over the USD after increasing almost 900,000 times in the last eight years.

Ever had a case where you wished you had bought something in the past that eventually went up significantly in value? Perhaps a plot in a low-value district which is now worth ten times more? Does that ring a bell? With so many amazing stories surfacing like Kristoffer Koch, Erik Finman, and Jay Smith, it seems the enormous rise of Bitcoin has been officially making ordinary people who invested in Bitcoin into millionaires."

"Monday marked the seventh anniversary of what is said to be the first recorded instance of Bitcoins being used in a real-world transaction.

Over the course of seven years, Bitcoin's value has multiplied 879,999 times.

If an investor had decided to spend five dollars on about 2,000 Bitcoins back then, that stake would be worth $4.4 million today.

With $1,200 spent on some 480,000 Bitcoins, the investor would be worth at least $1.1 billion today."

How wonderful! What's wrong with collecting more money?

Moral of the story:
GREED IS GREAT!


Anonymous said...

@anon 3.27pm

How great it wud be for little red dot if it had invested in Bitcoin back then?
Probably, Ah Long & JinkHo miss calculated or never heard of. Imagine when Tamasick invest just 1 million Sing dollar into Bitcoin.
Maybe Sinkieland can create something like SinBitcoin or Singabitcoin, guess nobody invest la..

Anonymous said...

Hindsight is the greatest investor, and that is for failed I-should-have dreamers.

Anonymous said...

If only GIC and Temasek invested 1% of their combined $300 billion funds, which means $3 billion, 8 years ago, today it would be $2.7 x 10 to the power of 15. That would be enough to pay back all the CPF savings to the powerless contributors, with much more to spare. Don't need to collect any tax for the next 10 years?

b said...

Is payandpay not independent? Is payandpay transferring tax money to cronies through schemes like outsourcing and consultancy fees thru government expediture? Is payandpay awarding infrasturture project to preferred clients? Is Ho Jinx easily seduced by blue eyed blone handsome european guys for investment puposes?

Sg is not very different from Zimbabwe or any corrupted countries. Its always the people who suffered.

Virgo49 said...

Bitcoin becomes Bit Con.

Con Men gave you sugar first.

Then when you put all your MONIES and Greed into it.

That's it.

It's become Bite Con.
Many suckers are born every mins.

Anonymous said...

Maybe Sinkieland can create something like SinBitcoin or Singabitcoin, guess nobody invest la..
December 19, 2017 4:25 pm

HDB flat used to cost about $7,000 in 1970.
Today, it's about $450,000
A 6,400% increase in value.

Do you think HDB flat is even better value than bitcoin?
Why?
Because after 99 years, HDB (the owner) regains possession ... and can sell the same HDB flat all over again.
Do you think this is even better than printing money?

Anonymous said...

@ December 19, 2017 5:16 pm

I think COE is even better than HDB flat.
No need to wait 99 years.
Wait 10 years and can sell a new COE liao.

Anonymous said...

“I have freed a hundred of slaves. And I could have freed thousands more, if they had only known that they were slaves."
― Harriet Tubman

“If you can select a population and they're educated and they're properly brought up, then you don't have to use too much of the stick because they would already have been trained.
It's like with dogs.
You train it in a proper way from small.
It will know that it's got to leave, go outside to pee and to defecate.
No, we are not that kind of society.
We had to train adult dogs who even today deliberately urinate in the lifts.”
― Lee Kuan Yew

"Stupidity has no cure"
- Chua Chin Leng (Singapore's Harriet Tubman)

Anonymous said...

// Wait 10 years and can sell a new COE liao. ///
December 19, 2017 5:19 pm

I think there is a typo.
What you mean is "Wait 10 years and then can recycle and re-sell the same old COE again."

Anonymous said...

@ December 19, 2017 9:08 pm

Is it also same, same with HDB flat?
Wait 99 years, and then afterwards can re-sell the same old HDB flat again to the same or new Singaporean family?

Bitcoin not so good right?
Once sold, cannot re-sell the same bitcoin again right?
Can I be arrested if I re-sell the same bitcoin to 2 different people?
What about if I re-sell the same Rembrandt painting to two different people?
Can I get myself arrested?

Conflicts of Mind said...

New Migrants Are Hungrier - Part 1

Lee Kuan Yew’s assertion that today’s Singaporean has turned soft has not gone down well with some quarters, but the reality is successive generations of migrants lose some of their forefathers’ pioneering spirit.


INSIGHT: BY SEAH CHIANG NEE, Star, Malaysia, April 17, 2010

ARE Singaporeans – third-generation migrants who helped to turn a rundown town into a global city – losing their steam?

The answer is yes, according to Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew, and quite a few employers share his view that it was good to have brought in foreign workers to fill the decline.

“Over time, Singaporeans had become less hard-driving and hard-striving,” Lee said in a recent interview.

The hard-talking Lee then upset many people when he said that if Singaporeans were falling behind because “the spurs are not stuck into the hide”, that was their problem.

He described the new immigrants from China and the region as “hungry” – helped by parents who “pushed the children very hard”. (Actually, Singaporean parents are often accused of putting too much pressure on their kids.)

Predictably, some Singaporeans were angry with the remarks that implied they were becoming lazy and ought to be spurred like slow horses.

His words were inimitable Lee, and his sentiments were shared by employers and some older Singaporeans who truly feel that the youth today have less drive.

One retiree said Lee was partly right. “Many middle class Singaporeans are becoming spoiled and complacent compared with (their counterparts in) some emerging nations.”

Particularly poor is the attitude of service workers, with only one in five willing to go that extra mile to keep customers satisfied.

Lee’s view, however, does not represent the average Singaporean, who is often told his diligence ranks highly in the world.

That portion of Lee’s unpopular remarks was diplomatically omitted in a Channel News Asia broadcast, but the quotes were widely posted online.

It prompted an unprecedented demand from a 15-year-old schoolboy for Lee to proffer an apology to Singaporeans.

One forum writer said: “Lee’s wrong. Singaporeans work and work like a busy bee – work for wife and children, work to pay loans, bills, and if they have a little money left, they will save for a rainy day.”

Some of the world institutions dealing with workers have released studies that contrasted with Lee’s judgment of his own people.

Since 1980, Washington-based risk consultancy agency BERI has rated Singapore’s workforce as the world’s best – long before the bulk of foreign workers arrived.

Its latest ranking places Singapore’s workforce as the seventh most motivated in the world and second in Asia.

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) said that despite the recent recession, Singapore workers clocked up more hours than people of any other country, except Iceland.

They worked longer hours than the Japanese (4th) and Korean (5th) – both renowned for their workaholic ethics.

One lecturer said it was not useful to compare the new poorer immigrants, hungry to earn Singapore dollars, with Singapore’s better-educated young Singaporeans.

“New economic migrants who move to a wealthy country will always strive harder than the locals,” said a lecturer. “It is natural because they want to build a future for their families.”

It would have gone against historical trends for the better-educated, affluent hosts to out-work the new arrivals, he said.

(Continues in Part 2)

Conflicts of Mind said...

New Migrants Are Hungrier - Part 2

He is right. Singaporeans are third-generation migrants who have prospered while the new arrivals are struggling first-generation immigrants with many mouths to feed back home.

Most of Singapore’s modern migrants who came in the 40s and 50s were probably as enterprising and hardworking as today’s newcomers.

At the time they had no more than the shirt on their back, hope in their heart and a dream in their eyes.

They desperately wanted to build a better life. Over decades of hard work and sacrifices, Singapore’s first-wave migrants have become prosperous and helped give a good education to their children.


This is The Singapore Story

The present lot is the third generation of the early pioneers and has progressed and opted for a more relaxed lifestyle.

It is in the nature of things that each successive generation of migrants lose some of their forefathers’ pioneering strive and spirit. Singapore is no exception.

Given time, this cycle will be repeated in Singapore when today’s newcomers – or their offspring – become prosperous and become contented and less striving.

By then these affluent and well-educated immigrants – whether from China or India – would have become as picky as our present generation of youths when it comes to “dirty” or “heavy” jobs.

I have read that even in China, some youths in the cities are becoming laidback as their parents become rich.

One analyst wrote that the new immigrants are like previous groups who came and worked hard.

“In future, their descendants will be like our present younger generation and tend to relax and take things easy. So in future, are we going to import more foreigners to spur their hide to make them work harder?” he asked.

“If so, that would ensure that nationhood will never take place.”

Some who agree with Lee blame it on the environment he created.

“I have met Singaporeans or ex-Singaporeans who have flourished in other countries.”

Surfer Normal Guy said Lee’s comments would not make him give up.

“My friends around me are not giving up, either. We will work real hard to grow, protect our nests and always try to stay ahead of whatever will happen in the next five years.”


Comment: Looks like his own son does not have that spur in his hide?

Anonymous said...

A leader who had always talked about his people as if they were animals does not reflect well of his mentality. If his people are animals, then he too could be said to be an animal too? May be the biggest animal?

"People get educated, the bright ones rise, they marry equally well-educated spouses. The result is their children are smarter than those who are gardeners. Not that all the children of gardeners are duds. Occasionally 2 grey horses produce a white horse but very few . If you have 2 white horses, the chances are you breed white horses. It's seldom spoken publicly because those who are NOT white horses say, "You're degrading me". But its a fact of life. You get a good mare, you don't want a dud stallion to breed with your good mare. You get a poor foal."

- MM Lee, Hard Truths interview - Jan, 2011.

Anonymous said...

You get a good mare, you don't want a dud stallion to breed with your good mare. You get a poor foal."

Ya! Tiok!
Good stallion and good mare will produce a foal completely free of cancer.

Anonymous said...

Knn, this conflict of interest thingi in Sg is keeping me awake with sleepless night.

Unknown said...

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One Man's Meat Is Millions' Poison said...


It turned out that the Champion Master's White Horse and White Mare produced an Albino foal, with defective genes, is it not so???

The fallacy of the Hard Truth as a national policy had extended to the implementation of a deliberate scheme of depriving those from poor families from producing children , undue abortions and compulsory legations. This cruelty to the unborn is tantamount to genocide. It has resulted in reverse population growth and a severe shortage of talents; thereby creating another serious flaw in policy of mass import of foreign talents - a stupidity to cover up the previous mistake of make-belief taken as hard truth.

The practice of pragmatism is the opposite of vision. A man without real vision can only add more colours to his vision, in order to deceive the dud, dumb and daft. Moreover, vision without wisdom is a sure ingredient for disasters.

God is Great!

Anonymous said...

Bible - Romans 13:1, New International Version (NIV)

Submission to Governing Authorities
---------------------------------
13 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God.

Yes.
God is Great!
December 20, 2017 6:57 am

Anonymous said...

Stupity has no cure! Only daft Sinkies believe in piece-meal selective propaganda and brain-washing.

b said...

Sg is good for people who just want a flat and public transport.
For people who want house and car, sg is not for them.
Can try msia, oz or nz.

All the leaders are the same everywhere.
Let the people eat crumbs and they eat cakes.

Anonymous said...

Bible: "When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice; but when the wicked rule, the people mourn."

Anonymous said...

Does God appoint evil leaders?
----------------

https://500questions.wordpress.com/2012/11/23/38-does-god-appoint-evil-leaders/