7/11/2018

A Brief Synopsis of India's China War. - 1962

Below are some salient points and facts behind the Sino-Indian border war of 1962. A good knowledge of the historical background  of the disputed boundaries is essential to the understanding of the dispute.

There are many cumulative factors that cause the Sino-Indian border war in the foothills of the Himalayas mountain ridges in 1962. There is the historical factor of British colonialism and imperialism in India expanding right into Chinese territories in Tibet, India's ambitious Forward Policy of building military outposts deep into Chinese territories far beyond the McMahon Line , a boundary illaterally drawn by the British but never recognized by China, US/UK Western political and psychological support as well as Soviet Union's behind the scene instigation and support that encouraged India to attack China. Also it was due to India's ambition of inheriting the mantle of British colonialism and imperialism at the expense of China and India's overconfidence and miscalculation that China would not fight back in the event of Indian attack on Chinese border troops , a false and fake feedback given to India by US/UK and Soviet Union that finally goaded India to attack China.

Throughout the 18th and 19th century British colonialism in India expanded maliciously towards the Chinese territories in Tibet. British expansionism incurred on Chinese territories in the Himalayas in both the north west region of Aksai Chin and the north east of southern Tibet in Tawang province. 

England refused to budge from occupied Chinese territories inspite of endless years of negotiations taking advantage of a weak and decadent Chinese government then.

British failure to settle its occupation of Chinese territories before it left India laid the foundation to the border war between India and China. Nehru's India was adament in refusing to talk and negotiate with China over the Chinese lands stolen from China by the British and now inherited by India as fait accompli Indian territories. Thus India wants to inherit the mantle of British colonialism and imperialism at the expense of China.

During the same period of 18th and 19th century another European imperial power Russia was expanding into Chinese territories both in Siberia in the north up to the Pacific coast where Vladivostok ( a former Chinese city ) is and in the south and south west in Xinjiang and Tibet in the Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains.

Both England and Russia had the same compulsion to expansion. And wherever new territories were occupied they established military outposts to fortify and strengthen their illicit and illegal occupation and to overcome local resistance. And that was how China lost vast territories to England in the south and three million and five hundred thousand square miles of Chinese lands to Russia in the north as well as thousands of square miles of Chinese territories in the Illi region of Xinjiang.

                                             
                                                   PART      TWO

On 14th March, 1899, in Peking, England agreed that the whole Karakash Valley and all Aksai Chin territory belonged to China. In the Simla Convention in 1914 Britain confirmed that Aksai Chin belonged to China. However, in 1947 when India became independent it refused to recognize Aksai Chin as Chinese territory.

When British forces reached the Himalayas it found that the states of Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan were all under some sort of Chinese suzerainty. In 1914 England illegally took the Tawang district of southern Tibet from China in which China objected and protested strongly. In 1946 an Indian map of Nehru's book "Discovery of India" 1st edition showed the Tawang province as Chinese territory. However, Britain's failure to reach an agreement with China left unresolved boundary problems to independent India in 1947, when it was granted independence on 14th August, 1947.

China had always protested the stealing of Chinese territories in Aksai Chin and Tawang and considered the Simla Convention in 1914 invalid. In October 1962 , China officially asked India to return to China a large swathe of territory from Ladakh to Assam which include Sikkim and the Darjeeling district.

India not only refused to return Tawang to China but renamed the province as the North-East Frontier Agency. India then adopted a forward policy of the British in grabbing more Chinese lands beyond the illegal McMahon Line and building military outposts to strengthen its occupation. When China called for talks and negotiations to settle the boundary issues it was always rebuffed by India which stubbornly maintained that they were Indian territories and there was nothing to talk or negotiate. India's attitude was on the model of the arrogant Americans or the west and that is 'accept what I claim or else there is nothing to talk about.'

In September 1962, India arm forces pressed forward in the western sector of Aksai Chin and the eastern sector - the North East Frontier Agency ( NEFA ). Thus it was India's forward policy which led to war. India believed and the belief was strengthened and assured by UK,US and Soviet Union that China would not fight back if India pressed forward and attack Chinese troops at the border. This strong conviction that China would not retaliate in the face of Indian attack encouraged India to continue its attack  on China more aggressively from 6th October, 1962.

In the meantime China appealeed to India to talk and negotiate a peaceful settlement instead of resorting to fighting. However, India's attitude meant that settlement must be on India's terms.. When India continued to attack China finally had to retaliate and pushed back Indian forces. It was then that India shamefully claimed that  China had carried out an unprovoked attack on India.

India had committed aggression against China but was quick to reversely put the blame on China for attacking India.It was a terrible shameful lie. It  showed how dishonourable India can be.

India turned panicky with the disastrous defeat of its armies in the border war. Nehru appealed to America and England for military aid. India gave a list of the weaponeries it required from USA . On 29th October, 1962, Nehru accepted US military aid. This exposed India's false and fake non-alignment policy. India was looking at war with China as hours of greatness. From the 12th to 16th November,1962, India carried out large scale attack on Chinese forces in the north-east, NEFA. Again Indian forces were routed by the Chinese peasant armies. 

On the night of 20th November, 1962, Nehru appealed for US intervention to bomb Chinese forces and also requested for US to despatch an aircraft carrier to the Bay of Bengal.

                                                         PART     THREE

                     China declared unilateral ceasefire

On 20th November, 1962, China announced to the world of its unilateral ceasefire and withdrawal to 20KM behind the line of actual control which existed between China and India on 7th November, 1959  -  The McMahon Line which China had never recognized.

China's army had advanced into the territory south of the McMahon Line ,  "in order to  thoroughly rout the Indian reactionaries and to shatter their plan of altering the border status quo by armed force and to create conditions for a negotiated settlement. It was the first time in recorded history that a great power has not exploited military success by demanding something more."  ( Quote from Neville Maxwell ) . China could have marched easily into into New Delhi, India's capital.

China repatriated to India all 6,000 Indian prisoners together with all their  guns, mortars, artilleries, brand new American automatic rifles and a Russian helicopter in serviceable condition.

China called for talks and negotiations again but was constantly rebuffed by India despite appeal by some Afro-Asian nations viz Egypt,UAR and Sri Lanka. Instead India in 1963 conducted a joint Anglo-American air exercise with long range fighter aircraft flying in to operate from Indian Air Force bases. Nehru had in November, 1962 called for Anglo-American intervention in the Sino-Indian border war. It was a betrayal of the Afro-Asian non-aligned neutral spirit. Further India also called for Soviet Union's help to build up her defenses.

It was India's intransigence in refusing to talking peace through negotiations that the borders were therefore settled down into an armed truce and diplomatic relations between China and India were frozen in limbo. In 1969 a suggestion by Mrs Indira Ghandi to mend diplomatic relations with China was rejected by Congress.

Nevertheless, China's long standing offer to negotiate a boundary settlement on the basis of the status quo when India is ready to do so still stands. 


                                                          PART     FOUR

In September, 1971, Neville Maxwell's book on India's China War had aroused a hostile uproar in India. Led by politicians and parliamentarians the public demanded punitive action against the publisher and the writer, Blames for the defeat of the border war were hurled and levelled at each other between and among the different groups of politicians, parliamentarians, Indian Intelligence Bureau and the military. 

Subsequently the retired army general - General Thapar broke his silence and in an article in the Statesman of 9th January, 1971 blamed the civilian defense minister , the director of Indian Intelligence Bureau and the civilian government not only for interference in purely military matters on flimsy political grounds but also for provoking the border war, when the defense minister ordered the army to evict the Chinese from Thag La ridge and other border areas both in the west and the east despite General Thapar's misgivings regarding Chinese reactions and its consequences.

It was generally believed by Nehru , his cabinet  and his generals that China would not react strongly to India's forward policy and to India's attack on Chinese border troops. General Kaul was a warhawk who persuaded Nehru and the parliamentarians to strongly support the forward policy and eviction of Chinese troops from their outposts that led the Indian army to establish advance checkposts to outflank Chinese positions. Further India supported the CIA armed  Tibetan emigres to foment and organize a separatist armed rebellion in Tibet . In fact Mullit the director of India's Intelligence Bureau and Nehru as well as many Indian generals and parliamentarians believe that India's national security can only be preserved by either India's occupation of Tibet or by helping to establish an independent Tibet state subservient to India. This has become a permanent feature of India's foreign policy.


Foot note:       

This synopsis base on Neville Maxwell's book, " India's China War " is written to present the truths elicited from facts to refute the false and fake representations by some overseas - ASEAN Indian intellectuals who still hold strong social and emotional ties to India that they cannot overcome their Psychological pain of India's defeat in the Sino-Indian war of 1962. Therefore they pretentiously claimed innocense of India and blame China for the border war. Thus for years they persistently and consistantly talk, speak and write damaging articles to disparage and demonise China to give China a bad image. They are also quick to condemn China in any dispute between China and other countries viz US, Japan, Vietnam or the Philippines without any logical basis other than their chronic pathological hatred for China .

Hopefully this brief synopsis will set them in the right perspective of historical truth and not base on their irrational thinking arising out of their emotional ethnic ties to India.


Southernglory1

Wednesday, 11th July,2018









 











9 comments:

Virgo49 said...

The Black Ants traditionally and culturally are not Trustworthy Beans.

They feigned and always acted as Victims but are the Aggressors.

The Universally Idiom of between the Snakes and the Black Ants is very apt.

Mentally casted Inferiority Complex and behaved with Fake Superiority towards any Human Beans.

Trust them at your own Perils.

"Bro" Youngdies 81 said...

"Bro",

The other day in a shopping mall, heard a small sch gal calling her father "Bro". Now seems to be the trend ... so for a 81 youngdie to call an oldie a "Bro" is only "keeping up with the time"?

Oldies should NOT be "surprised" if one day their grown up children come back home and call them "Bro"? Or mb during cny their nieces and nephews do that? Now is the trend. Youngdies (especially the millenials) like to do things to make oldies "blur like sotong"?

Dunno purposely or not but that is the trend?

Now back to the topic.....

To understand a people, often just look at their food?

When they making cobra ... oops ... brata, look at the process ... this is the fatest way to understand their culture?

No?

Dun believe?

Now look at the JackPeeNiece ...

Just to make tuna sashimi, u will notice how meticulous they are ... and the "weapons" they deploy to "finish" their task?

Still dun believe?

Now you look at the angmo?

In Chinese culture, culinary use on the tables are artistic, well embroidered and decorated porcelein spoons, chopsticks, chopsticks holders etc ...

For the Angmo, when they eat, even on the dining table they are thinking of war subconsciously?

No?

U see the "weapons" angmo use on the dining table?

Short of deploying nuclear weapons and GPMG, all others including a full range of sharp knieves, forks ... and the more FINE DINING it is, the longer the list of "weapons" they laid out on the "FINE DINING" on their right and left sides ...? No?

Try out at those ATAS fine dining ang mo restaurants that damage your bank accounts 4-digit a meal ... you will realise that even during fine dining, the culinary the angmo use they are thinking of war during dinner ....? It is in their nature?

How about those who don't use any culinary to eat?

Cannot "teach oldies or reveal" too much to them ...

Go figure out ... dun be lazy or daft (as old fart labelled yall)?

Also the way angmo food are served ... can see the difference ... where got Chinese pig trotters cooked medium rare or rare de? Ever seen anywhere in the world they sell pork loin or pork shoulder meat rare or medium rare in chinese culture? But angmo culture it is the other way round? Cannot find beef steak cooked thoroughly like the charsiew or roast pork ... The waitress will laught at you if u want your beef steak fully cooked like your pork chop ...

See?

Even the way they eat also need to see "raw raw blood" in their food ... many like their beef steak rare so when they use their sharp culinary "weapon" to slice into the beef steak, they can see uncooked raw raw blood red flesh beneath the outer layer?

Not convinced?

Will tell u another angmo culture that will reveal what they represent in real life but in future comment

Cheers

Titiana Ann Xavier said...

The 1962 Sino-India border war was inevitable. Nehru's forward policy forced China to teach India a lesson. Mao told President Nixon when he visited China that the war against an arrogant India would bring peace for at least 30 years. The war humiliated India as its army was easily routed by the PLA. Nehru was ill-advised. He was told that Chinese soldiers would flee the moment Indian soldiers fired the first shot. Many Indian hawks today love a re-match. Last year Doklam stand-off almost trigger off a second Sino-Indian war but wisdom prevailed and peace won.

Anonymous said...

Where ever white men go there goes trouble. The Chinese admiral Zheng He sailed out of China with a fleet of about four hundred ships in the early 1400s. The objective of his many voyages to South East Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Middle East and Africa was to make friends, learn new things, fact finding and learn new geographical knowledge. Contrast this with white men's voyages in which every of their voyage was one of plunder, robbing, killing and occupation and conquest of other people's lands.

Daft Sinkies especially the so call intellectuals in politics should learn the truth of geographical and historical facts less they are awed by white men's false and fake superiority.

Anti-white peril

Anonymous said...

The whites started the Yellow Peril scare and the silly people of the world believe it when the real peril is the White Peril. Wherever they go, they invaded, conquered, colonised, plundered and robbed.

What fucking Yellow Peril are they talking about?

Anonymous said...

To learn more about Admiral Zheng He's voyages round the world please read the book, "1421 The Year China Discovered America." written by Gavin Menzies a retired British senior naval officer. It seemed that when Zheng He's ships anchored at one of the ports in the Middle East , an Italian ship crew who worked for Zheng He stole Zheng He's maps of the Americas. Drawn copies of Zheng He's maps subsequently fell into Christopher Columbus hands, an Italian sea captain or pirate who was later able to seek the queen of Spain's support for his voyages to America.

The day October 12th 1492 when Columbus first landed in America turned out to be day when the Europeans began their plunder, killings, genocide and occupation of native American lands. It is commemorated as such every year on this date by all native Americans all over the Americas.

That speaks so much of white men's civilization or rather barbarism.

Anonymous said...

Blame the barbaric British who planted the seeds of future dissension, hostilities, contention and wars between China and it ex-colony India without settling the boundary issues and the return to China of lands stolen from China. White men always planted seeds of evil and future wars for their ex-colonies to fight before they left. They are really very wicked and evil. They are really the evil on earth , so every country should be on guard against the " White Peri " The native Americans call them 'Pale Face' or dead persons colour or complexion.

Fight against the white peril which is just as endemic today as it was yesterday.

Titiana Ann Xavier said...

The western world was stunned and incredulous when China announced a ceasefire and withdrew 20km behind the ALC after the PLA made mincemeat of the Indian Army. Never in the history of warfare has a victor acted like the PLA. All POWs were given medical care and food. All captured equipment were inventorised, polished and returned intact. The magnanimity of the Chinese was unappreciated. The Indians felt it was an insult added to injury.

Mat Salah said...

Today India and China have nuclear weapons. A war between them is unthinkable. The 2 Asian giants have to embrace peaceful co-existence. OBOR is a good start.